Pine Bark Beetles
There are numerous species of Ips and Dendroctonus, bark beetles,that infest conifers throughout North America. Adults tunnel through the bark, mate and lay eggs in the phloem (inner bark). The larvae develop in the phloem and cambial region; pupal development is completed in the outer bark. Adults develop from pupae and emerge by boring out through the bark. Multiple generations a year are possible.
"We have been getting great results with the Arborjet system and materials on many types of bark boring beetles this year. In fact, we’ve seen heavy activity of these beetles from the Bay Area, through the Sierra’s into Nevada, and are currently treating trees with Arborjet in Placerville, Reno, Auburn, the Tahoe area, Arnold, Sonora, as well as numerous locations along the coast.” --Michael Andrew, Director of AG Services for Clark Pest Control
Symptoms of infestation include: pitch tubes, reddish boring dust, adult exit holes, and yellowing foliage. The beetles commonly attack drought stressed trees. High numbers of attacks to trees are possible, which can result in extensive vascular injury and ultimately, tree death.
Photo A taken by USDA Forest Service - Region 8 - Southern Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Tia Smith, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Research studies using TREE-äge® insecticide (containing 4% Emamectin Benzoate) has demonstrated great results against conifer bark beetles, depending on the pest species targeted.
TREE-äge is for control of mature and immature arthropod pests of deciduous, coniferous, and palm trees including, but not limited to, those growing in residential and commercial landscapes, parks, plantations, seed orchards, and forested sites (in private, municipal, state, tribal and national areas). TREE-äge contains the active ingredient emamectin benzoate and is formulated to translocate in the tree's vascular system when injected. This product must be injected into active sapwood and will actively control pests for up to two years with a single application. 1,2
TREE-äge is designed for use with tree injection devices that meet the label and dose requirements (for example, the Arborjet Tree Injection Systems) for the control of listed pests of trees. Follow manufacturer's directions for equipment use.
Dosages are based on the Diameter (in inches) of the tree at Breast Height (DBH").
Placement of Injection Sites: Inject at the base of the tree. Inject into the stem within 12" of the soil, into the trunk flare or into tree roots exposing them by shallow excavation. Make applications into intact, healthy sapwood. Do not inject into injured areas or areas with decay. Select injection sites associated with stem growth.
Number of Injection Sites: Work around the tree, spacing injection sites approximately every 6.0 inches of tree's circumference.
Drill Depth: Drill through the bark then 5/8" to 1-5/8" into the sapwood with the appropriate sized drill bit. Use clean, sharp drill bits. Brad point bits are recommended. Precautions should be taken to avoid diseased areas and transferring infected tissues to other injection sites.
Resinous Conifers: In resinous conifers, such as pine and spruce, start the injection immediately after drilling into the sapwood. A prolonged delay may reduce uptake on account of resin flow into opening.
Effective injection treatment is favored by a full canopy (i.e., leaves) and healthy vascular system. Once these tissues are compromised by arthropod damage (larval galleries, defoliation, leaf mining, etc.) an effective and uniform application of TREE-äge may be difficult to achieve and subsequent control may be poor. Optimally, treatment should be made preventively at least 2 to 3 weeks before arthropods historically infest the host tree. As a result of systemic movement and longevity of TREE-äge in trees, this interval may be extended much earlier to 6 months should tree dormancy, adverse weather, management, asynchronous life cycle of pests, etc., allow earlier application timing.
TREE-äge may also be effective as a remedial treatment against some pests, such as those with slower development or if multiple life stages are susceptible to TREE-äge . Pests that attack the stem and branches such as bark beetles and clearwing borers may disrupt vascular tissue resulting in poor distribution in an infested tree. This includes the initial larval stages of pests, such as bark beetles and clearwing borers, that attack the stem and branches, which may disrupt vascular tissue resulting in poor distribution of the product in an infested tree. However, control may be achieved if larvae come into contact or feed on TREE-äge treated tissues.
Research studies using TREE-äge (containing 4% Emamectin Benzoate) have demonstrated great results against conifer bark beetles, depending on the pest species targeted. You can expect TREE-äge to be systemically distributed throughout the treated tree and protect the tree from the pest for up to 2 years.1,2
1 Effectiveness of Two Systemic Insecticides for Protecting Western Conifers from Mortality Due to Bark Beetle Attack
Don M. Grosman, Christopher J. Fettig, Carl L. Jorgensen, and A. Steven Munson
Western Journal of Applied Forestry 25(4) 2010
2 Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides for Protection of Loblolly Pine Against Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Cuculionidae: Scolytinae) and Wood Borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Donald M. Grosman and William W. Upton
Journal of Econ. Entomol. 99 (1): 94-101 (2006)
Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or using these products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy.
TREE-äge is a Restricted Use Pesticide and may only be sold to and used by a state certified applicator or by persons under their direct supervision. TREE-äge is not registered for use in all states. Please check with your state or local extension service prior to buying or using this product.
TREE-äge® is registered trademark of Arborjet, Inc.
"Report on Research Accomplishments in 2009." Page 23. Forest Pest Management Cooperative. Dr. Donald M. Grosman, Research Coordinator; Dr. Ronald F. Billings; William W. Upton; Bill Kavanagh, Texas Forest Service, Forest Pest Management
Pine Bark Beetle Treatment Begins in Denver, CO
2011 Webinar Series Session 2 - Tree Physiology